# Release 0.10 (2006-10-06)

Note

This version of Nix uses Berkeley DB 4.4 instead of 4.3. The database is upgraded automatically, but you should be careful not to use old versions of Nix that still use Berkeley DB 4.3. In particular, if you use a Nix installed through Nix, you should run

$nix-store --clear-substitutes  first. Warning Also, the database schema has changed slighted to fix a performance issue (see below). When you run any Nix 0.10 command for the first time, the database will be upgraded automatically. This is irreversible. • nix-env usability improvements: • An option --compare-versions (or -c) has been added to nix-env --query to allow you to compare installed versions of packages to available versions, or vice versa. An easy way to see if you are up to date with what’s in your subscribed channels is nix-env -qc \*. • nix-env --query now takes as arguments a list of package names about which to show information, just like --install, etc.: for example, nix-env -q gcc. Note that to show all derivations, you need to specify \*. • nix-env -i pkgname will now install the highest available version of pkgname, rather than installing all available versions (which would probably give collisions) (NIX-31). • nix-env (-i|-u) --dry-run now shows exactly which missing paths will be built or substituted. • nix-env -qa --description shows human-readable descriptions of packages, provided that they have a meta.description attribute (which most packages in Nixpkgs don’t have yet). • New language features: • Reference scanning (which happens after each build) is much faster and takes a constant amount of memory. • String interpolation. Expressions like "--with-freetype2-library=" + freetype + "/lib"  can now be written as "--with-freetype2-library=${freetype}/lib"


You can write arbitrary expressions within \${...}, not just identifiers.

• Multi-line string literals.

• String concatenations can now involve derivations, as in the example "--with-freetype2-library=" + freetype + "/lib". This was not previously possible because we need to register that a derivation that uses such a string is dependent on freetype. The evaluator now properly propagates this information. Consequently, the subpath operator (~) has been deprecated.

• Default values of function arguments can now refer to other function arguments; that is, all arguments are in scope in the default values (NIX-45).

• Lots of new built-in primitives, such as functions for list manipulation and integer arithmetic. See the manual for a complete list. All primops are now available in the set builtins, allowing one to test for the availability of primop in a backwards-compatible way.

• Real let-expressions: let x = ...; ... z = ...; in ....

• New commands nix-pack-closure and nix-unpack-closure than can be used to easily transfer a store path with all its dependencies to another machine. Very convenient whenever you have some package on your machine and you want to copy it somewhere else.

• XML support:

• nix-env -q --xml prints the installed or available packages in an XML representation for easy processing by other tools.

• nix-instantiate --eval-only --xml prints an XML representation of the resulting term. (The new flag --strict forces ‘deep’ evaluation of the result, i.e., list elements and attributes are evaluated recursively.)

• In Nix expressions, the primop builtins.toXML converts a term to an XML representation. This is primarily useful for passing structured information to builders.

• You can now unambiguously specify which derivation to build or install in nix-env, nix-instantiate and nix-build using the --attr / -A flags, which takes an attribute name as argument. (Unlike symbolic package names such as subversion-1.4.0, attribute names in an attribute set are unique.) For instance, a quick way to perform a test build of a package in Nixpkgs is nix-build pkgs/top-level/all-packages.nix -A foo. nix-env -q --attr shows the attribute names corresponding to each derivation.

• If the top-level Nix expression used by nix-env, nix-instantiate or nix-build evaluates to a function whose arguments all have default values, the function will be called automatically. Also, the new command-line switch --arg name value can be used to specify function arguments on the command line.

• nix-install-package --url URL allows a package to be installed directly from the given URL.

• Nix now works behind an HTTP proxy server; just set the standard environment variables http_proxy, https_proxy, ftp_proxy or all_proxy appropriately. Functions such as fetchurl in Nixpkgs also respect these variables.

• nix-build -o symlink allows the symlink to the build result to be named something other than result.

• Platform support:

• Support for 64-bit platforms, provided a suitably patched ATerm library is used. Also, files larger than 2 GiB are now supported.

• Added support for Cygwin (Windows, i686-cygwin), Mac OS X on Intel (i686-darwin) and Linux on PowerPC (powerpc-linux).

• Users of SMP and multicore machines will appreciate that the number of builds to be performed in parallel can now be specified in the configuration file in the build-max-jobs setting.

• Garbage collector improvements:

• Open files (such as running programs) are now used as roots of the garbage collector. This prevents programs that have been uninstalled from being garbage collected while they are still running. The script that detects these additional runtime roots (find-runtime-roots.pl) is inherently system-specific, but it should work on Linux and on all platforms that have the lsof utility.

• nix-store --gc (a.k.a. nix-collect-garbage) prints out the number of bytes freed on standard output. nix-store --gc --print-dead shows how many bytes would be freed by an actual garbage collection.

• nix-collect-garbage -d removes all old generations of all profiles before calling the actual garbage collector (nix-store --gc). This is an easy way to get rid of all old packages in the Nix store.

• nix-store now has an operation --delete to delete specific paths from the Nix store. It won’t delete reachable (non-garbage) paths unless --ignore-liveness is specified.

• Berkeley DB 4.4’s process registry feature is used to recover from crashed Nix processes.

• A performance issue has been fixed with the referer table, which stores the inverse of the references table (i.e., it tells you what store paths refer to a given path). Maintaining this table could take a quadratic amount of time, as well as a quadratic amount of Berkeley DB log file space (in particular when running the garbage collector) (NIX-23).

• Nix now catches the TERM and HUP signals in addition to the INT signal. So you can now do a killall nix-store without triggering a database recovery.

• bsdiff updated to version 4.3.

• Substantial performance improvements in expression evaluation and nix-env -qa, all thanks to Valgrind. Memory use has been reduced by a factor 8 or so. Big speedup by memoisation of path hashing.

• Lots of bug fixes, notably:

• Make sure that the garbage collector can run successfully when the disk is full (NIX-18).

• nix-env now locks the profile to prevent races between concurrent nix-env operations on the same profile (NIX-7).

• Removed misleading messages from nix-env -i (e.g., installing foo' followed by uninstalling foo') (NIX-17).

• Nix source distributions are a lot smaller now since we no longer include a full copy of the Berkeley DB source distribution (but only the bits we need).

• Header files are now installed so that external programs can use the Nix libraries.

Last update: November 4, 2021